Whether you’re suffering from anxiety or are just in a crabby mood, before you start poking around your head as if looking for answers, you might do well to aim a little lower: your gut.

“Do you have gut instincts? Do you get butterflies in your stomach when you’re nervous? Can a job interview cause you to have stomach cramps?” asks Elizabeth Lipski, PhD, CCN, CHN, author of Digestion Connection. “These things happen because your nervous system and digestive system are intertwined.”

The connection between the brain and the gut is called the gut-brain axis, and it’s a two-way street. “The gut and the brain and the brain and the gut are intimately connected in a bi-directional way,” says David Perlmutter, MD, author of Brain Maker. “We’re just beginning to understand that this incredible relationship exists between our digestive system and the brain.”

While science is just catching up to the idea that the brain and the gut are more intertwined than we ever imagined, this idea has been appreciated by natural practitioners for a long time.

“Many years ago, naturopaths and holistically oriented doctors understood that bacterial imbalances were problematic,” says Gerard Mullin, MD, author of The Gut Balance Revolution. “They knew that to get healthy you had to rebalance the gut bacteria. But modern science, which is very pill oriented, has been proactively dismissive of these things and felt it was predicated on quackery. Now the evidence is so overwhelming, and more and more people appreciate it.”

Here’s some of the evidence that experts are pointing to when it comes to the complicated relationship between your brain and belly.

“It’s a bit humbling, this information, but the fact is, more than 90 percent of the neurotransmitters—chemicals like dopamine and serotonin, that actually serve to regulate our mood—are made in the gut,” says Dr. Perlmutter.

He explains that it’s the bacteria themselves that play an important role in the very manufacture of these neurotransmitters. If your gut is populated with the wrong bugs, they won’t be able to make the same feel-good chemicals, which can have a major impact on your mood.

In fact, these gut bacteria play such an important role in creating these neurotransmitters that an imbalanced gut is even linked to depression. “The reason people take antidepressants is to elevate levels of serotonin in the brain; and yet, the target here is the gut, not the brain, because the gut is where these chemicals come from in the first place,” says Dr. Perlmutter

Depression is also an inflammatory condition. And the first place to start looking for inflammation is in the gut.

“When there’s an imbalance in your gut bacteria, that is going to create shifts in your expression of gut hormones,” says Dr. Mullin. “It’ll cause the gut lining to become more permeable. That will allow the bacterial toxins to disseminate and cause an inflammatory reaction, which can affect brain function adversely.”

Similarly to depression, an imbalanced gut may also be at the root of anxiety. Research published in Psychiatry Research found that those who ate more probiotic-rich fermented foods were less likely to experience social anxiety.

Cognitive Function
That foggy feeling you get after eating too much junk food isn’t in your head—it’s in your gut. “If I had to choose one word that I hear from my patients, it’s ‘clarity,'” says Dr. Perlmutter, describing what happens when people rebalance their gut. “A lot of what we hear from patients is, ‘The fog was lifted.’ People didn’t realize there was fog until it has lifted and they become clear.”

Research from Oregon State University supports this anecdotal reaction. They found that mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet saw a shift in gut bacteria that was linked to a loss of cognitive flexibility (the ability to adapt to changing situations) and short- and long-term memory.

Dr. Perlmutter explains that the wrong gut bacteria can lead to “static on the line,” as he puts it. “The brain has got to receive plenty of energy to function. In the presence of inflammatory chemicals, the brain is less efficient at creating energy and it doesn’t work as well,” he says. “What happens in that situation is you develop static on the line. Your bandwidth goes down. It’s taking longer and longer to load those mental websites, if you will. And understand that gut bacteria are the mediators of inflammation throughout the body, including in the brain.”

Cravings and Recognizing Fullness
There’s a small part of your head that says, “I don’t need that french fry,” but the much louder message is, “More!” Turns out that the foods you put into your stomach affect how your brain looks at the rest of your meal.

Research from the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior found that feeding rats a high-fat diet led to gut bacteria shifts and caused the brain to fail to receive the “I’m full” message from the belly.

“The brain is changed by eating unbalanced foods,” explains Krzysztof Czaja, DVM, PhD, a principal investigator on the study and associate professor of neuroanatomy at the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine. “It induces inflammation in the brain regions responsible for feeding behavior. Those reorganized circuits and inflammation may alter satiety signaling.”

Plus, bacteria may also be at the helm when it comes to steering you toward healthy—or unhealthy—choices. Research published in BioEssaysfound that microbes are able to manipulate us into eating things that they want to eat—and bad bacteria crave junk food. These germs are able to manipulate taste receptors, make us feel bad, or send out rewards to control the foods we send into our stomachs.

Skeptical that a tiny little germ could control your behavior? Dr. Perlmutter explains that gut microbes are so powerful that they can make a rat fall in love with a cat (and then promptly get eaten). The toxoplasmosis organism lives inside the digestive tract of a cat, and it would like to stay there. However, the cat will ultimately excrete the germ in its feces. To get back into the cat, the microbe manipulates whatever host picks it up—in this instance, a rat.

“When a rodent is infected with toxoplasmosis organism, the bacteria changes the brain of the rodent so that it begins to see the cat as a sexual partner,” says Dr. Perlmutter. Presenting itself as a mate to a cat is a surefire way to get that rodent eaten. “The cat then gobbles it up,” he says.

“How powerful an example is that that the germ is manipulating its host (the rodent) in order to continue its life cycle?!”


Article Source: http://www.rodalewellness.com/health/how-your-gut-controls-your-brain

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