Lack of exercise costs world $67.5B and 5M lives a year

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A study of one million people has found that physical inactivity costs the global economy $67.5 billion a year in healthcare and productivity losses, but an hour a day of exercise could eliminate most of that.

Sedentary lifestyles are linked to increased risks of heart disease, diabetes and cancer, researchers found, but activity – such as brisk walking – could counter the higher likelihood of early death linked with sitting for eight or more hours a day.

Such inactivity is estimated to cause more than 5 million deaths a year – almost as many as smoking, which the World Health Organization (WHO) says kills 6 million a year.

Giving details of their findings at a briefing in London, the international team of researchers warned there has been too little progress in tackling a “pandemic of physical inactivity”.

Ulf Ekelund, a professor at the Norwegian School of Sports Sciences and Cambridge University, said that WHO recommendations for at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise a week was probably not enough. A quarter of adults worldwide do not meet even the WHO’s recommendations.

“You don’t need to do sport or go to the gym … but you do need to do at least one hour a day,” he said, giving walking at 5.6 km an hour (km/h) or cycling at 16 km/h as examples of what was needed.

People who sat for eight hours a day but were otherwise active had a lower risk of premature death than people who spent fewer hours sitting but were also less active, suggesting that exercise is particularly important, no matter how many hours a day are spent sitting.

The greatest risk of premature death was for people who sat for long periods of time and did not exercise, according to the findings, published in The Lancet on Wednesday.

In another of the series of four studies, researchers estimated healthcare costs and productivity losses for five major diseases linked to lack of exercise – heart disease, stroke, diabetes, breast cancer and colon cancer – cost $67.5 billion globally in 2013.

Melody Ding of the University of Sydney, who led this part of the research, said the costs occur largely in wealthier countries, but as poorer countries develop, so too will the economic burden of chronic diseases linked to inactivity.

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PDE5 inhibitors – Another reason to love them

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Boston Testosterone Partners – Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Men with adjunct therapies in PDE5 inhibitors such as tadalafil (Cialis) and Sildenafil (Viagra).  Here is another reason why many of our patients love to include tadalafil troches into their therapy protocols.

Researchers from the University of Bonn treated mice with Viagra and made an amazing discovery: The drug converts undesirable white fat cells and could thus potentially melt the unwelcome “spare tire” around the midriff. In addition, the substance also decreases the risk of other complications caused by obesity. The results are now published in “The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology” (FASEB).

Sildenafil – better known as Viagra – is used to treat erectile dysfunction. This substance prevents degradation of cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (cGMP), which then ensures blood supply for an erection. However, another effect of Viagra has been noticed quite some time ago – mice given sildenafil over longer periods of time were resistant to obesity when fed with high-fat diet. However, the cause for this reduced weight gain had been unclear. Researchers from the University of Bonn have been able to shed some light on this sildenafil effect. “We have been researching the effect of cGMP on fat cells for quite some time now,” reports Prof. Dr. Alexander Pfeifer, Director of the Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Bonn. “This is why sildenafil was a potentially interesting candidate for us.”

Viagra converts undesirable white fat cells into beige ones

Together with the PharmaCenter of the University of Bonn, the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), and the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, the team around Prof. Pfeifer studied the effect of sildenafil on fat cells in mice. The researchers administered the potency drug to the rodents for seven days. “The effects were quite amazing,” says Dr. Ana Kilic, one of Prof. Pfeifer’s colleagues. Sildenafil increased the conversion of white fat cells, which are found in human ‘problem areas’, into beige ones in the animals. “Beige fat cells burn the energy from ingested food and convert it to heat, says Prof. Pfeifer. Because the beige fat cells can “melt the fat” and thus fight obesity, researchers are very hopeful for their potential.

Positive effect on inflammation responses

In addition, the researchers observed something else of interest. If white fat cells are further “stuffed”/accumulating lipids, they are increasing in size and can synthesize and release hormones which in turn cause inflammation thus increasing the persons risk for chronic diseases. Such inflammatory responses may then lead to, e.g., cardio-vascular diseases resulting in heart attacks and strokes, as well as cancer and diabetes. “It seems that sildenafil prevented the fat cells in these mice from getting onto that slippery slope,” reports Prof. Pfeifer. Overall, the development of white cells seems to be healthier.

More than half a billion overweight people worldwide

Globally, over half a billion people are overweight. Present study has resulted in interesting starting points for further research on this mechanism. “Sildenafil is not only able to minimize erectile problems, but it can also reduce the risks of gaining excessive weight,” says Prof. Pfeifer. The researchers may have found a mechanism that allows converting the undesirable white fat cells into the “good” beige (brown-like) fat cells that “melt” away excess pounds. In addition, it might be possible to decrease complications related with obesity. “But this will need to be proven in additional studies,” adds Dr. Kilic.

Caution against premature application

Despite promising data, researchers caution the public against the fallacy of thinking that popping some sildenafil will work to quickly lose the extra pounds accumulated over the holidays. “We are currently in the basic research stage, and all the studies have been exclusively performed on mice,” stresses Prof. Pfeifer. It will be a long way until potentially suitable drugs for decreasing white fat cells in humans will be found.

Boston Testosterone Partners

Boston Testosterone Partners – At our National Men’s Testosterone Replacement Therapy Clinic in Boston, Massachusetts, many of our patients are treated with Tadalafil (Cialis) sublingual troches 6.25mg daily that work amazing to increase blood flow for ED. However, most everyone finds a great benefit while weight training as blood flow to the muscle is increased as well resulting in a “muscle pump”.

Coupled with our testosterone replacement therapy, the protocols work wonders for men.

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National Testosterone Restoration for Men
Wellness & Preventative Medicine

The Big Fat Fix: meet the diet doctor changing the way we eat

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Calories and butter are in and carbs and sugar are out — Rosamund Urwin meets the diet doctor changing the way we eat.

Dr Aseem Malhotra orders a double helping of cheese. At Li Veli — an Italian bistro in Covent Garden — he picks a plate of Italian cheeses as a starter and then tucks into aubergine Parmigiana, a gratin with mozzarella and Parmesan.

This isn’t a “sod the diet” day, though. Malhotra is a cardiologist, and this is how he thinks we should all eat. He puts grass-fed butter on his vegetables, and extra-virgin olive oil on  everything else. And in his new documentary, The Big Fat Fix, he sets out why fat isn’t the enemy but sugar is, and how refined carbohydrates — white bread and white pasta — are false friends, to be consumed only in moderation.

“Some people have an outdated fear of fat,” the 38-year-old says. “It’s nonsense. We’ve got better data than we had years ago when it was said fat was the problem. Full-fat, non-processed dairy is good for the heart and fat keeps you fuller for longer.”

What about the old bogeyman of the food industry, saturated fat? “There are different types. Extra virgin olive oil — amazing for health — has about 14 to 20 per cent saturated fat. We should move towards food-based, not food-group, guidelines.”

Malhotra dismisses the current health consensus: “The focus has been on cholesterol, weight and burning calories — it’s all fatally flawed. The root cause driving heart disease and diabetes is insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that helps control glucose levels in the blood. What drives insulin resistance is a diet that’s high in sugar and refined carbohydrates.”

In The Big Fat Fix, Malhotra travels to Pioppi in southern Italy where the residents enjoy longevity and a healthy old-age with low rates of heart disease, diabetes and dementia. Britain’s bastardisation of the Italian diet means we think it means pizza and pasta. It doesn’t. It means oily fish and lots of vegetables. Pizza is a once-a-month treatl; pasta is a starter. And in Pioppi, even a rare pudding was cooked in olive oil.

The Pioppi Protocol should be our dietary model, Malhotra says. His first advice to patients (he works at the Lister Hospital in Stevenage) is that they should eat a handful of nuts a day. Then they should cut all processed and refined sugar. They should never buy anything marked low-fat but should eat lots of veg and oily fish, which is high in Omega 3. Counting calories is out too: “It’s the quality of the calories you are eating that matters, not the number.”

The effects, he says, are dramatic: “I don’t mean weight loss — although you may lose weight as a side-effect — I mean with health. We should focus on health not weight — and the weight will correct itself.”

Even the slim should heed this advice. Many have the “illusion of protection”, Malhotra says, because they aren’t struggling to button up their jeans. “Many of my patients’ measure of success is their weight and doctors focus too much on it too. There’s no such thing as a healthy weight. Forty per cent of people with a normal BMI will still get lifestyle diseases. The biggest risk factor for them is waist circumference.”

Malhotra wasn’t always this way. He used to eat sugary cereal for breakfast. Finding himself starving at 11 am, he would reach for a KitKat. For lunch he might have pasta, while Dinner could be a curry with lots of rice. Since changing his diet, he’s lost a stone — and it’s all from around the waist.

What changed his view was seeing, as a junior doctor, the pressure on the NHS. “There was ever more misery, ever more people who were overweight or with Type II diabetes.”

He believed our dietary advice must be wrong, started investigating and noted conflicts of interest in the promotion of a low-fat diet. “I’ve been eating and sleeping this for five years.”

The Big Fat Fix also looks at exercise (there’s even a training montage!). Previously Malhotra was a drive-to-the-gym-and-pound-the-treadmill type. But then he spoke to orthopaedic surgeons, who said they were seeing people in their forties needing hip and knee replacements, and that no one should run on the pavement, or even treadmills.

Now he does a lot of squats, and focuses on compound movement.  “Try not to sit for more than 45 minutes at your desk. Just stretch for 15 seconds or do a squat. For heart health, keep moving. Do what you enjoy: whether it’s cycling or walking.” In Pioppi there are no gyms. “If you look at the Mediterranean culture in the film, they walk everywhere. These people are living until 90! ” He also reckons we should have more sex — to reduce the odds of heart disease, obviously.

He is frustrated that so much focus is on working off calories. “It angers me that people are measuring how many they are burning on a treadmill. The body doesn’t work that way. The amount you burn from exercise is minimal compared with what people eat. If you want to put on weight, we tell you to exercise because it increases appetite.”

He calls for a revolution in how we think about energy from food. “About 75 per cent of the calories we burn are for just keeping your organs going. I need energy for my brain, my heart. I don’t want to be fuelling that with stuff that’s going to give me heart disease and Type II diabetes. The idea that it doesn’t matter where the calories come from, you can just burn it off, is nonsense.”

Malhotra’s mission now is to take these messages to the masses. “A doctor’s duty goes beyond individual patients to the whole population.”

Written By: Rosamund Urwin

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Boston Testosterone – Testosterone Therapy Patient Testimonials and Reviews

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Testosterone Replacement Testimonials and Reviews by Boston Testosterone Partners.

At Boston Testosterone Partners, we define success as our patients do.

We believe that candor, veracity and integrity are defined not by what a medical practice says about themselves but, instead, what the patients and clients say about the medical practice.

Boston Testosterone Partners was founded by Physicians who pride themselves on openness, transparency and simplicity.  Our industry low cost of $420 / 12 weeks of complete testosterone therapy is unmatched.  Moreover, 99% of the other testosterone clinics and testosterone doctors never disclose their therapy costs or options until they gather all your personal information.  Further, we charge no other recurring fees, nothing monthly, nothing annual, nothing billed automatically.  We do not force our clients to unnecessarily purchase lab and diagnostic testing.  Unlike most other clinics, we allow our patients to use their insurance for all testosterone blood work orders.

And our practice not only offers the lowest and best prices for Testosterone Replacement medications, but we go one step further.  We lock in prices for our patients when they start, something very few Testosterone Replacement Clinics or Hormone Doctors will ever offer.

Our practice focus is squarely on the health of men.  TRT is a small fraction of our practice.  Many of our patients come referred to us by their Primary Care Doctors with joints and connective tissue injuries to heal and many with fat loss goals.  And many of them, in addition to our TRT protocols, come for the Proprietary Injectable B12/Amino Acid compounds, Sermorelin Therapy, Glutathione protocols or our cutting edge neutraceutical injectables found only at Boston Testosterone.

Boston Testosterone Reviews and Testimonials

The way we see it, there’s no greater view of what to expect than what others experience.  It’s why we always read product reviews before we buy something.  Honesty and integrity demand the reviews be impartial and voluntary  certainly not contrived.  And that speaks volumes when trying to figure out who the BEST TESTOSTERONE THERAPY CLINIC is for you!

We despise the industry standard of using fake patient names, acronyms and cities to post testimonials and reviews.   All of our reviews are posted directly to our Facebook Wall by our patients themselves.

As such, we invite and encourage you to visit our Facebook Page for TRT Reviews and Testimonials:   Boston Testosterone Partners on Facebook and read all the patient postings to our wall.  Over 30,000 fans can’t be wrong.

A few of the most recent posts to our wall:

Massachusetts – “Just finishing 12 weeks of protocols with BTP and I have to say what a God send and life saver this has been. Charlie B. is an amazing guy and the staff and doctors are too. BTP has the best protocols in the biz and the best pricing too. I have never felt better in my life. I sleep through the night, I have the energy levels I did when I was 25 and have been in such a positive mental state it is great. I feel like I have a whole new lease on life. 

I highly recommend all men to get their t levels checked. It will be the best thing you could do for yourself. Or better yet, give Charlie B a call or email and find out for yourself what I have discovered. Yes, I was skeptical at first and hesitated to take the first step. However I am so happy and thankful now that I did I want everyone to do the same. Instead of just getting older, I am getting better and so much happier. 

Thank you Charlie B and BTP, you saved my life and opened my eyes to what I always thought my life should be. 
If anyone wants to chat or talk just message me. I will be happy to answer any questions or concerns you my have.”

New Hampshire – “CB, Great info and sites!!! If it was not for you I would have continued smearing that gel on me and blowing up my prostate to the point I’d have cancer by the time I’m 40 (32 now)… Guys listen to your body like you would your car, if there’s a flat tire don’t go in for an oil change, seek out the proper “repair” shop and get it fixed by the person with the most knowledge… You wouldn’t drive your kids around like that, so don’t do it to your body… I’m only in my first week of my Therapy with Charlie, but can already mentally feel a change happening… If your skeptical call Charlie, he will give you so much info that your primary Dr or in my case even my urologist didn’t tell me… Again, great post and thanks for everything Charlie, even the 11:30pm phone call returned after my first dose!!!”

UPDATE – “Wanted to post an update on my therapy so far with BTP and Charlie… Just did my third test/Vit D injection yesterday… thus far, down 2 belt holes (now needing to go pant and bet shopping) leaning out and feeling stronger not only at the gym lifting weights, but also at the rock climbing gym where i’m not lactic acid burning out as quick on the wall and also on the ice both coaching and playing… can’t believe its only been 2 full weeks… oh and I know guys reading this are going to read it and go see all he’s getting are superficial gains… let me get to the important stuff, waking up with energy (not slowly waking up downing 2 red bulls then getting in the shower), focus and memory getting better (i’m an Iraq and Afghanistan vet with PTSD and Traumatic brain injury, so this is HUGE for me) and I guess i’ll add in the any time any place anywhere part that my wife is now starting to really enjoy ;p … Charlie is an endless fountain of knowledge and answers when I need it, couldn’t ask for better service… can’t wait to see what the next few weeks bring!!!”

Pennsylvania  – “I came across Charlies page by sheer luck and I thank God. A female friend of mine from the gym I go to liked this page and of course it showed up on mine. I had to check it out. Im reading it and saying to myself can this be real. Well let me tell I am 58 years old and have been working out for the past 35 years. My legs and back are in pretty good shape but for the last 8 years or so my shoulders have felt like they were screwed on with a pipe wrench. I dreaded my upper body workouts but I have a strong will and get through but as you can imagine it’s hard to get any results when you are in pain. I have moderate arthritis in my right one and tendonitis in both. I have been on the therapy for about 1 month now and I am simply astonished. My shoulders have loosed up to the point I can train without the pain. I also had a hard time building muscle. I feel like I am blowing up like a baloon. I had to tell Charlie he is the best he takes my calls and always returns them. I felt like I was a pain in the ass but could not believe the results I was getting. I called him just yesterday to tell him I feel like sprinting,fucking, jumping, boxing and I believe I can. I feel that good so if you have any doubts please believe me this will be the best thing you will ever do for yourself and I can’t thank Charlie enough it almost seems to good to be true! Oh yes and one more thing I forgot to mention I can cut glass with mr. Winky. It is simly Awesome!”

Massachusetts – ‎”12 weeks in and i feel fantastic. Charlie has been exceptional. Starting with my first inquiry, all my questions, ordering, and usage, he was automatic with a response and assistance. Everything now is simple and easy, but he still checks in and keeps me posted. Top notch service. Thank you Charlie!”

Texas – “just want to say thanks i’m feeling better i’m sleeping better i have started your program 1 month ago with mild deiting and medium excise i have lost 9-11 lbs it verys from day to day i have also lost 2″ in my belly girth of fat but most of all im getting the rest i need when i sleep sleeping like a baby once again thanks Scott”

Massachusetts – “I just thought I’d let everyone know that I’m being treated for my low T through Boston Testosterone Partners , and cast all doubts aside people from the morning after I started treatment I felt amazing. I feel like I’m 19 again energy level back up also concentration is on point as well as drive. This is no joke I’m no spokesperson or model just an average Joe. You will be happy with the results and so won’t your family, friends, and coworkers. The customer service provided is right on. They are with you every step of the way. Just ask it can’t hurt.”

If you are in the market for help, if you would like to find out your testosterone levels or if you have previously been diagnosed as suffering from Low Testosterone, Hypogonadism or Andropause, contact us.

Send us an email for information on our practice, our TRT protocols and our adjunct therapies:

Like all the patients before you whose lives have changed by getting tested and getting their testosterone levels back, you’ll be grateful that you found us.

National Testosterone Replacement Therapy for Men

“The Greatest Health of Your Life”℠

Boston Testosterone Partners
National Testosterone Restoration for Men
Wellness & Preventative Medicine

Low testosterone may cause health problems that lead to erectile dysfunction

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Men with erectile dysfunction should be examined for testosterone deficiency and the metabolic syndrome, because these conditions commonly occur together, a new study shows. The results will be presented at The Endocrine Society’s 90th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.

“Erectile dysfunction is a portal into men’s health,” said the study’s senior author, Aksam Yassin, MD, PhD, of the Clinic for Urology and Andrology of the Segeberger Clinics in Norderstedt, Germany. “It is becoming clear that obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cholesterol problems and erectile difficulties are intertwined, and a common denominator is testosterone deficiency.”

Yassin’s research, performed with scientists from The Netherlands, Germany and the United Arab Emirates, aimed to determine in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) the prevalence of hypogonadism, the scientific term for testosterone deficiency.

Over a two-year period the investigators studied 771 patients who sought treatment for ED. Their average age was 56. The patients received a comprehensive screening for low testosterone and indicators of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors that increase the chances of developing heart and vascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Having three of the following five risk factors establishes the diagnosis of this syndrome: increased waist circumference (abdominal fat), low HDL (“good”) cholesterol, high triglycerides (fats in the blood), high blood pressure, and high blood sugar.

Among the 771 men, 18.3 percent of the men (141 men) had testosterone deficiency, which had previously been undetected, the authors found. The prevalence of hypogonadism in the general population of men age 45 and older is about 12 percent, Yassin said.

Of all the men in the study, 270 (35 percent) had type 1 or type 2 diabetes; in eight of the men, diabetes was a new diagnosis, according to study data. High blood pressure was found in 239 men (31 percent), and 12 of these men had been unaware of it. Among the 162 men (21 percent) who had dyslipidemia–abnormal cholesterol or triglycerides–nine of them had not previously been diagnosed. And 108 men, or 14 percent, had varying degrees of coronary heart disease. Five of them received this diagnosis for the first time, Yassin said.

Men with ED–especially older men–should therefore receive evaluation not only for ED but also for testosterone deficiency and any underlying signs of the metabolic syndrome, he advised.

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National Testosterone Restoration for Men
Wellness & Preventative Medicine

Experts take strong stance on testosterone deficiency and treatment

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BOSTON – In an effort to address widespread concerns related to testosterone deficiency (TD) and its treatment with testosterone therapy, a group of international experts has developed a set of resolutions and conclusions to provide clarity for physicians and patients. At a consensus conference held in Prague, Czech Republic last fall, the experts debated nine resolutions, with unanimous approval. The details of the conference were published today in a Mayo Clinic Proceedings report.

Much of the controversy surrounding testosterone therapy stems from intense media attention on recent reports suggesting increased heart-related risks associated with testosterone treatment. “The importance of this meeting was to set aside the various distortions and misinformation that have appeared regarding testosterone therapy and to establish what is scientifically true based on the best available evidence,” said Abraham Morgentaler, MD, chairman of the consensus conference. Morgentaler is the Director of Men’s Health Boston and an Associate Clinical Professor of Urology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School.

After examining the best available scientific evidence, Morgentaler and colleagues — who included experts with specialties in urology, endocrinology, diabetes, internal medicine, and basic science research — agreed on the following:

  • TD is a well-established, clinically significant medical condition that negatively affects male sexuality, reproduction, general health and quality of life.
  • Symptoms and signs of TD occur as a result of low levels of testosterone and may benefit from treatment regardless of whether there is an identified underlying origin.
  • TD is a global public health concern.
  • Testosterone therapy for men with TD is effective, rational, and evidence-based.
  • There is no testosterone concentration threshold that reliably distinguishes those who will respond to treatment from those who will not.
  • There is no scientific basis for any age-specific recommendations against the use of testosterone therapy in adult males.
  • The evidence does not support increased risks of cardiovascular events with testosterone therapy.
  • The evidence does not support increased risk of prostate cancer with testosterone therapy.
  • The evidence supports a major research initiative to explore possible benefits of testosterone therapy for cardiometabolic disease, including diabetes.

“It will be surprising to those unfamiliar with the literature to learn how weak the evidence is supporting the alleged risks of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer,” said Michael Zitzmann, MD, vice-chair of the conference and a Professor in the Centre for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology at the University of Muenster in Germany. “Indeed, there is substantial data suggesting there may actually be cardio-protective benefits of testosterone therapy.”

“The medical and scientific communities are still largely unaware of the major negative impact of testosterone deficiency on general health,” added co-author Abdulmaged Traish, PhD, a Professor of Urology at Boston University Medical Center. “The media-driven focus on unproven risks has obscured the known health risks of untreated testosterone deficiency: obesity, reduced bone mineral density, and increased mortality.”

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National Testosterone Restoration for Men
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Low Testosterone Levels and the Risk of Anemia in Older Men and Women

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Background  Anemia is a frequent feature of male hypogonadism and anti-androgenic treatment. We hypothesized that the presence of low testosterone levels in older persons is a risk factor for anemia.

Methods  Testosterone and hemoglobin levels were measured in a representative sample of 905 persons 65 years or older without cancer, renal insufficiency, or anti-androgenic treatments. Hemoglobin levels were reassessed after 3 years.

Results  At baseline, 31 men and 57 women had anemia. Adjusting for confounders, we found that total and bioavailable testosterone levels were associated with hemoglobin levels in women (P = .001 andP = .02, respectively) and in men (P<.001 and P = .03, respectively). Men and women in the lowest quartile of total and bioavailable testosterone were more likely than those in the highest to have anemia (men, 14/99 vs 3/100; odds ratio [OR], 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-21.8 for total and 16/99 vs 1/99; OR, 13.1; 95% CI, 1.5-116.9 for bioavailable testosterone; women, 21/129 vs 12/127; OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.9-5.0 for total and 24/127 vs 6/127; OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.4 for bioavailable testosterone). Among nonanemic participants and independent of confounders, men and women with low vs normal total and bioavailable testosterone levels had a significantly higher risk of developing anemia at 3-year follow-up (21/167 vs 28/444; relative risk, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1 for total and 26/143 vs 23/468; relative risk, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.9-7.8 for bioavailable testosterone).

Conclusion  Older men and women with low testosterone levels have a higher risk of anemia.

There is evidence that testosterone influences erythropoiesis during male puberty.1 Hemoglobin levels are similar in prepubertal boys and girls but increase in boys after age 13 years, mirroring changes in testosterone concentrations. Interestingly, boys with delayed puberty have hemoglobin levels similar to those of prepubertal boys and girls, and treatment with testosterone normalizes hemoglobin levels to those observed in the late male puberty.2,3 These data suggest that testosterone contributes to the 1- to 2-g/dL difference in hemoglobin concentration between adult men and women. If testosterone stimulates erythropoiesis in adults, it is reasonable to hypothesize that a decline in testosterone levels with aging may negatively affect erythropoiesis. Accordingly, men with hypogonadism or those taking anti-androgenic drugs frequently have anemia.4– 8 Conversely, diseases characterized by high testosterone levels and testosterone replacement therapy often produce a rise in hemoglobin levels that sometimes reaches the level of erythrocytosis.9– 14 However, whether older men and women with low testosterone levels are at higher risk for anemia has never been fully investigated.

Using data from a population-based sample, we tested the hypothesis that older men and women with low testosterone levels are more likely to be affected by anemia and to develop anemia over a 3-year follow-up period than women with normal testosterone levels. Understanding the causes of anemia in older persons is important because anemia in older persons is frequently unexplained15 and is associated with a high risk of disability and accelerated decline of physical function.16– 18

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National Testosterone Restoration for Men
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