Mitochondria, Telomeres, Strength Training & What It Means For Something To Qualify As An “Anti-Aging” Activity

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In his excellent article series on anti-aging, anti-aging fitness expert Clarence Bass highlights this study showing that six months of progressive resistance training made the gene expression pattern of aging mitochondria appear significantly younger. 

Muscles can become smaller and weaker with age (a process known as sarcopenia), and evidence suggests that a key part of the decline occurs in a component of muscle cells called the mitochondria, the primary engine of energy production.

From the study, which was done on men at an average age of 70 years old, researchers reported that “…the older individuals were able to improve strength by approximately 50%, to levels that were only 38% less than that of young individuals…”. This means that seniors engaged in weight training closed the strength gap between themselves and their counterparts who were nearly 40 years younger from 59% to 38%, which is an improvement of almost 36% in a mere six months of the study.

Muscle biopsies from the study showed “a remarkable reversal of the expression profile of 179 genes associated with age and exercise training…Genes that were down-regulated with age were correspondingly up-regulated with exercise, while genes that were up-regulated with age, were down-regulated with exercise.”

The researchers summed things up by reporting that “healthy older adults show a gene expression profile in skeletal muscle consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction and associated processes such as cell death, as compared with young individuals. Moreover, following a period of resistance exercise training in older adults, we found that age-associated transcriptome expression changes were reversed, implying a restoration of a youthful expression profile.”

So when it comes to mitochondria, weight training reversed nearly 40 years of aging!

But exercise doesn’t only affect mitochondria.  Two more studies show how exercise protects DNA from the wear and tear of aging, and how the addition of fast-twitch muscle fibers precipitate fat loss and improve metabolic function – primarily by acting on telomeres.

Telomeres cap the DNA chromosomes in your cells and protect these chromosomes from damage. As you age, telomeres progressively wear and shorten from repeated cell division, oxidative stress, inflammation, and other metabolic processes, eventually leaving the cell’s chromosomes unprotected. When the caps are completely eroded or disappear, the wear and tear begins to cut into your genes, causing cells to become damaged and discarded as you grow older.

In this next study, scientists measured telomeres in twins to gauge the effect of exercise on aging, hypothesizing that “telomere dynamics might chronicle the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and inflammation and, as such, serve as an index of biological age” and that “physical activity level may have an [independent] effect on telomere attrition”.

They studied 2401 twins (2152 women and 249 men, aged 18 to 81), used questionnaires on physical activity level, smoking status, disease status, and socioeconomic status, and extracted DNA from blood samples.

So what did they find in this study on twins?

Telomere length decreased with age. No surprises there. But both the women and men who were physically active had longer telomeres than those who were sedentary, even after adjusting for the influence of age, weight, disease, socioeconomic status, and smoking.

In addition, the study participants who spent more than 3 hours each week engaged in vigorous physical activity (such as lifting weights) had longer telomeres than subjects 10 years younger, suggesting that individuals who eschew placing a vigorous load on their body may wind up biologically older by 10 years.

Obviously, since they were studying twins, these differences weren’t due to genes, but rather due to the lifestyle factor of exercise. When one twin exercised significantly more than the other, they had longer, more durable telomeres.

In the next study, researchers found that replacing slow-twitch type I muscle fibers with stronger and faster type II muscle fibers produced a significant reduction of fat mass and insulin resistance. Endurance training develops slow-twitch fibers, but strength training builds fast-twitch fibers.

For this study, researchers used a genetically engineered mouse that contained a muscle-growth regulating gene called Akt1 that could be turned on and off by the researchers. Activating Akt1 caused the mice to grow type II fibers, without exercise (important to note, since mice don’t really lift weights that well, even when commanded to by scientists in white lab coats). When the Akt1 gene was turned on, the mice took on the characteristics of a lean and powerful sprinter or weight lifter, and when the gene was turned off, the mice reverted to a predominance of type I muscle fibers, along with becoming more obese and insulin resistant (notably, this was without an actual change in diet!).

The researchers reported that “remarkably, type II muscle growth was associated with an overall reduction in body mass, due to a large decrease in fat mass. In addition, blood tests showed that these mice became metabolically normal [with no insulin resistance]. This work shows that type 2 muscle just doesn’t allow you to pick up heavy objects, it is also important in controlling whole body metabolism. It appears that the increase in type 2 muscle fiber orchestrates changes in the body through its ability to communicate with other tissues”.

Beyond the age of 30, we lose approximately six pounds of muscle mass per decade, and these findings indicate that interventions designed to increase skeletal muscle mass (such as weight training) may prove to be critical weapons in the fight against obesity and obesity-related ailments, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, hypertension, and cancer.

The key point here of course is that weight training, due to it’s recruitment of type II muscle fibers, appears to be more effective than cardio, endurance and aerobics for fat loss, weight control, essentially converting the cells into a fat-burning machine.

Finally, yet another study on strength training effects on telomere length in human skeletal muscle looked into reports of a phenomenon of abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes who had overtraining and exercise-associated fatigue. This important study looked into the question of whether long-term hard exercise might have deleterious effects on muscle telomeres. So, using muscle biopsies, the researchers compared telomere length of a group of power lifters who had trained for an average of eight years against that of a group of healthy, active subjects who had no history of strength training.

There was absolutely no abnormal shortening of telomeres in the power lifters. As a matter of fact, telomere lengths in the power lifters were significantly higher than those of the control group, and telomere length was positively correlated to the power lifters’ individual records in the squat and deadlift!

These results show for the first time that long-term weight training is not associated with an abnormal shortening of skeletal muscle telomere length, and that the heavier the load you put on your muscles, the longer your telomeres will tend to be.

Written by: Ben Greenfield

Article Source: https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/2016/05/the-fittest-old-people/

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Male birth control shot found effective, but side effects cut study short

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Both men and women are responsible for pregnancy, yet the burden of preventing it often falls on one gender. Women can choose from a variety of options to control fertility while for generations, men have been limited to withdrawal, condoms and sterilization. But someday soon, a new method may allow men to shoulder a greater share of responsibility.

A new hormonal birth control shot for men effectively prevented pregnancy in female partners, a new study found.
The study, co-sponsored by the United Nations and published Thursday in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, tested the safety and effectiveness of a contraceptive shot in 320 healthy men in monogamous relationships with female partners. Conducted at health centers around the world, enrollment began on a rolling basis in September 2008. The men, who ranged in age from 18 to 45, underwent testing to ensure that they had a normal sperm count at the start.
The injection, given every eight weeks, consisted of 1,000 milligrams of a synthetic form of testosterone and 200 milligrams of norethisterone enanthate, essentially a derivative of the female hormones progesterone and estrogen referred to as “progestin” in the synthetic form.
According to Dr. Seth Cohen, a urologist at NYU Langone Medical Center, when a man is given a shot of testosterone, “basically, the brain assumes the body is getting enough,” so the body shuts down its own production of testosterone — specifically “the testicle’s production of testosterone as well as the testicle’s production of sperm.”
The progestin “further drives the brain malfunction, so it stops the testicle’s production of both testosterone and sperm,” explained Cohen, who was not involved in the new study.
The researchers used a combination of hormones in order to reduce the testosterone dose to a level that they believed, based on previous studies, would effectively lower fertility yet still be safe.

Study terminated early

During the ramp-up pre-efficacy stage of the study, the couples were instructed to use non-hormonal birth control methods, while the men participants received shots and provided semen samples until their sperm counts dropped to less than 1 million per milliliter in two consecutive tests. At that point, couples relied on the injections as contraception.
Throughout the study, the men provided semen samples to ensure that their sperm counts stayed low. Once the participants stopped receiving the injections, they were monitored to see whether and how quickly their sperm counts recovered to levels described as “fertile” by the World Health Organization.
The researchers discovered that the shot effectively held the sperm count at 1 million per milliliter or less within 24 weeks for 274 of the participants. The contraceptive method was effective in nearly 96% of continuing users.
Four pregnancies (resulting in three live births) occurred among the men’s partners, all during the phase where other contraception was required. All the babies were normal, noted Doug Colvard, co-author of the study and deputy director for programs at the nonprofit research organization CONRAD, Eastern Virginia Medical School, a co-sponsor of the study.
Serious negative effects resulting from the shots included one case of depression and one experience of an abnormally fast and irregular heartbeat after the injections stopped. The researchers considered one intentional overdose of acetaminophen possibly related.
“It is possible that the fluctuations in the circulating progestin following bimonthly injections could haveresulted in the reported or observed mood swings, such as occurs in women, whether on a hormonal contraceptive or not,” Colvard speculated.
Overall, 20 men dropped out early due to side effects. A total of 1,491 adverse events were reported by participants, including injection site pain, muscle pain, increased libido and acne. The researchers say that nearly 39% of these symptoms — including one death by suicide — were unrelated to the shots.
However, due to side effects, particularly depression and other mood disorders, the researchers decided in March 2011 to stop the study earlier than planned, with the final participants completing in 2012.
“I immediately thought of the recent findings on female birth control,” Elisabeth Lloyd said of a study published last month in the journal JAMA Psychiatry. A faculty scholar at the Kinsey Institute, she is a professor of biology and an adjunct professor of philosophy at Indiana University Bloomington.
The study she refers to found an association between the use of hormonal birth control and depression. It looked at prescriptions filled during an 18-year period by more than 1 million women included in Denmark’s national registry.
According to the lead author, Dr. Øjvind Lidegaard of the University of Copenhagen, among women both with and without a psychiatric history who were using hormonal contraceptives, about 10% to 15% got a prescription for an antidepressant during a five-year period.
Annually, the risk of antidepressant use among the youngest group of women taking hormonal contraception amounts to between 2% and 3%. Two or three out of every 100 women between 15 and 19 years old who take hormonal contraceptives will become depressed over the course of a year. “Adolescents seemed more vulnerable to this risk than women 20 to 34 years old,” the researchers noted in their study.
Lidegaard said doctors need to tell women about the benefits and risks of hormonal contraceptive products when deciding which birth control to use.

Effects on fertility

After the men stopped receiving shots, most returned to fertility during a recovery period.
“The minimum recovery time was about 12 weeks after the last injection, and the average time was about 26 weeks,” said Colvard.
Still, there were problems. After 52 weeks in recovery, eight participants had not returned to fertility. The researchers continued to follow these men individually, and five eventually regained normal sperm counts over a longer period of time. One volunteer did not fully recover within four years, though he did “partially recover, so whether he is actually fertile is not known,” Colvard said.
“It shows that it’s a risk, a low-probability risk of it, and it’s not to be sneezed at as a risk of it, surely,” said Lloyd, who is unaffiliated with the new study.
Lloyd said, adding that this risk needs to be compared with those involved in hormonal birth control for women, such as potentially fatal strokes and blood clots.
“These risks of fertility damage are not fatal risks like the women endure with their birth control,” said Lloyd. “You have to compare what women are doing in terms of taking hormones with what men are doing in terms of taking hormones. Are they taking their life in their hands when they take the hormones? Women are. And that needs to be put right up in front when considering the risk.”
Colvard and his co-authors say more research is needed as they work to perfect their cocktail of hormonal contraceptives in an attempt to reduce the risk of side effects, including depression, increased sex drive and acne.
Despite the side effects of the male birth control shot, more than 75% of participants reported being willing to use this method of contraception at the conclusion of the study.
Cohen believes at least part of the reason for this is that they were getting testosterone.

Looking to the future

“Testosterone makes men feel pretty good,” Cohen said. “Testosterone is not a stimulant per se, but it is a steroid, and like a lot of steroids, it can give you a boost of energy. It can give you a boost of muscle mass. It can help with weight loss. It can help with mentation,” or mental activity.
Lloyd believes that if 75% of the men said they’d be interested in getting the shot if it were available, there’s real interest in the product. “That’s unbelievable. That’s fabulous. I’m very very impressed with that number,” she said.
Cohen, who says he he sees patients who face infertility or other hormonal problems, worries about the safety of this method. “Let’s just say, when I read it, I was highly alarmed,” he said, explaining that putting men on testosterone who have normal testosterone levels is not safe and amounts to a violation of the “ethical clinical practice guidelines.”
However, Lloyd thinks this product is a long time coming.
“It’s been a long time since people have been talking about male birth control. This goes back to the 1950s at least.” When scientists first began talking about hormonal birth control for women, they also discussed the same for men, explained Lloyd, but hormonal contraceptives for men were not acted on or investigated.
Cohen questions the general safety of hormonal birth control — for anyone.
“We’re talking about young people, and the scary thing is messing around with young people’s hormones, and that can be detrimental for the rest of their life, right?” Cohen said. “You take an 18-year-old girl or a 20-year-old boy and mess around with their hormones, you’ve really altered possibly how they go through their life.
“If anything, this may wake us up to finding out better hormonal contraceptives for women, right? Because certainly, I know that a lot of young women don’t get the type of counseling that maybe they deserve when it comes to contraception,” Cohen said. “Just a (prescription) and a visit to Duane Reade is all they get, and that may not be enough.”

Article Source: http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/30/health/male-birth-control/index.html?sr=fbCNN103116male-birth-control1030AMStoryGalLink&linkId=30515664

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The Products that Make Men Grow Breasts, Linked to Cancers of the Prostate and Liver

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Owned by Unilever, the Axe brand includes a range of men’s grooming products with many of the ingredients never even tested for safety according to the C.I.R. – Cosmetic Ingredient Review.

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

Axe products are loaded with endocrine disrupting chemicals. Endocrine disruptorsare exogenous, synthetic chemicals that have hormone-like effects on both humans and wild-life and interfere with the endocrine system by either mimicking or blocking our natural hormones and disrupting their respective body functions.
Member scientists of the Endocrine Society issued a report in which they claim:

“We present the evidence that endocrine disruptors have effects on male and female reproduction, breast development and cancer, prostrate cancer, neuroendocrinology, thyroid, metabolism and obesity, and cardiovascular endocrinology.”

New studies are also revealing that these harmful chemicals may be causing physical feminization in males. A study published by the International Journal of Andrology found that feminization of boys can now be seen through their play habits.

Medical experts are now wondering whether exposure to years of these toxic chemicals is part of the reason so many older men are low on testosterone and experiencing erectile dysfunction. So they take a little blue pill and get exposed to even more chemicals and the cycle continues.

Aluminum Zirconium Tetrachlorohydrex Gly

Aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex gly is the active ingredient in Axe deodorant products. One or more animal studies show kidney or renal system effects at very low doses, mammalian cells show positive mutation results, animal studies show reproductive effects at moderate doses.

Aluminum was first recognized as a human neurotoxin in 1886, before being used as an antiperspirant. A neurotoxin is a substance that causes damage to nerves or nerve tissue.

 

COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE

COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE is a very toxic ingredient which has been linked to cancer in animal tests. The biggest danger of using a product with cocamidopropyl betaine is its potential contamination with nitrosamines.

Nitrosamines are created when nitrosating agents are combined with amines.  Nitrosamines have been identified as one of the most potent classes of carcinogens, having caused cancer in more than 40 different animal species as well as in humans.

PPG-14 Butyl Ether

PPG stands for popypropylene glycol, which is made from a completely artificial petroleum product, methyl oxirane. Another name for that is propylene oxide (which is a probable human carcinogen). Propylene oxide is also an irritant and highly flammable. Butyl ethers are in the paraben family, and they are toluene derivatives (toxic petrochemical compounds).  Toluene has proven to have a harmful affect on the reproductive system while parabens have been linked to cancer.

 

PEG-8 Distearate

According to a report in the International Journal of Toxicology by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) committee, impurities found in various PEG compounds include ethylene oxide; 1,4-dioxane; polycyclic aromatic compounds; and heavy metals such as lead, iron, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, and arsenic. Many of these impurities are linked to cancer.

BHT

There have been many studies which demonstrate that BHT accumulates over time in the body, having a toxic impact on the lungs, liver and kidneys amongst other negative effects. A study by Gann in 1984 showed that BHT was capable of promoting chemically-induced forestomach and bladder cancer in male rats.

A 1988 Swedish study by Thompson looked at both BHT and BHA. They found that both were toxic and tumour promoting.  Both antioxidants were observed to be cytotoxic in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 microM. At equimolar concentrations BHT was more cytotoxic than BHA.

BY ANYA V Source: livingtraditionally.com

The Products that Make Men Grow Breasts, Linked to Cancers of the Prostate and Liver

 

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Low levels of the DHEA prohormone predict coronary heart disease

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Men with low levels of DHEA in the blood run an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease events. The Sahlgrenska Academy study has been published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

The term prohormone refers to the precursor of a hormone. DHEA is a prohormone that is produced by the adrenal glands and can be converted to active sex hormones. While the tendency of DHEA levels to fall with age was discovered long ago, the biological role of the prohormone is largely unknown.

Researchers at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, have now shown that elderly men with low levels of DHEA in the blood run an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease events.

Lower level – greater risk

The study–which monitored 2,614 men age 69-80 in Gothenburg, Uppsala and Malmö for five years–assessed DHEA levels. The findings demonstrated that the lower the DHEA level at the study start, the greater the risk of coronary heart disease events during the five-year follow-up.

“Endogenous production of DHEA appears to be a protective factor against coronary heart disease,” says Åsa Tivesten, who coordinated the study. “High DHEA levels may also be a biomarker of generally good health in elderly men.”

Clear correlation

According to Professor Claes Ohlsson, “While the study establishes a clear correlation between DHEA in the blood and coronary heart disease, the discovery does not indicate whether or not treatment with DHEA will reduce the risk in individual patients.”

###

“Dehydroepiandrosterone and its Sulfate Predict the 5-Year Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Events in Elderly Men” was published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology on October 28.

Link to article: http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1918789

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WHAT ALOE VERA DOES IN YOUR BODY: WHY EGYPTIANS CALLED IT THE PLANT OF IMMORTALITY

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Known to the Egyptians as the plant of immortality and to Native Americans as the wand of heaven, aloe vera comes with a wide array of amazing healing properties — some of which you may already be aware. You might even have your own aloe vera plant in your home for those small emergencies like scrapes, cuts, and burns, but did you know that aloe vera is not only limited to topical use and is actually even more beneficial to your body when taken internally?

Aloe vera contains over 200 biologically active, naturally occurring constituents which include polysaccharides, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, and minerals that promote nutrient absorption.

According to The Journal of Environmental Science and Health, aloe vera also possesses anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-fungal properties that assist the immune system in cleansing the body of toxins and invading pathogens. But that isn’t all aloe vera juice/gel has to offer.[1]

Minerals

Aloe vera has loads of minerals including calcium, magnesium, zinc, chromium, selenium, sodium, iron, potassium, copper, and manganese. These minerals work together to boost metabolic pathways.

Enzymes

Aloe Vera contains important enzymes like amylase and lipase which can aid in digestion by breaking down fat and sugar molecules. One molecule in particular, Bradykinase, helps to reduce inflammation.

Vitamins

One study  showed that aloe vera actually contains vitamin B12, which is required for the production of red blood cells. That would be great news for vegetarians and vegans in particular, who often do not get adequate amounts of B12 through their regular diet. Keep in mind however, that was just one instance and you shouldn’t rely on aloe alone for your daily requirements of b12.

Other studies have shown that taking aloe can assist with the bioavailability of vitamin B12, meaning the body can more easily to absorb and utilize it which can prevent deficiency. Aloe vera is also a source of vitamins A, C,E, folic acid, choline, B1, B2, B3 (niacin), and B6. While it’s tough to say whether we could rely on Aloe as a source of B12, it can be used in conjunction with a supplement to help increase uptake.

Amino Acids

Aloe vera contains 20 of the 22 essential amino acids that are required by the human body. It also contains salicylic acid, which fights inflammation and bacteria.

Other Uses For Aloe

Aside from being an excellent body cleanser, removing toxic matter from the stomach, kidneys, spleen, bladder, liver, and colon, aloe can also offer effective relief from more immediate ailments, such as indigestion, upset stomach, ulcers, and inflammation in the gut. It also strengthens the digestive tract and alleviates joint inflammation, making it a great option for arthritis sufferers.

One study found that aloe vera juice, when taken the same way as a mouthwash, was just as effective at removing plaque as the common mouthwash and its active ingredient, chlorhexidine. This is a much better alternative because it is all-natural, unlike the typical chemical-laden options found in stores.

Aloe vera gel has also been found to effectively heal mouth ulcers, which are more commonly known as canker sores.

How To Take Aloe?

Aloe can be consumed straight from the plant, but the easiest and most palatable option is probably aloe juice, which you can find in most health food stores. You can also buy the leaves from many common grocery stores, or harvest your own, and juice them yourself.

You can buy the juice and mix it into your juices and smoothies or just drink it straight up. Make sure you are buying pure aloe juice/gel which is either of the whole leaf or just the inner filet. It does have a somewhat bitter taste though, so you may want to include other things. On the bottle you can find specific dosing instructions, but it would be wise to talk to a natural health expert or do some research into the matter to find instructions on specific dosing.

 

Source:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3729540/

http://www.herballegacy.com/Baldwin_History.html

Article Source: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2016/03/09/what-aloe-vera-does-in-your-body-why-egyptians-called-it-the-plant-of-immortality/

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Gut Bacteria May Help Decrease Stroke

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Certain types of bacteria in the gut can leverage the immune system to decrease the severity of stroke.

Stroke is currently the second leading cause of death worldwide. The most common type is ischemic stroke, during which a blocked blood vessel prevents blood from reaching the brain. Researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center induced ischemic stroke in mice two weeks after administering a combination of antibiotics. The mice treated with antibiotics had a stroke that was approximately 60 percent smaller than the mice that did not receive antibiotics. The microbial environment in the gut instructed the immune cells present there to protect the brain, shielding it from the stroke’s full force. “Our experiment shows a new relationship between the brain and the intestine,” stated Dr. Josef Anrather, the Finbar and Marianne Kenny Research Scholar in Neurology and an associate professor of neuroscience in the Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute at Weill Cornell Medicine. “The intestinal microbiota shape stroke outcome, which will impact how the medical community views stroke and defines stroke risk.” These findings open up the possibility that altering the macrobiotic makeup of the gut could become a new method of preventing stroke. For high-risk patients, such as those who are having cardiac surgery or those who have multiple obstructed blood vessels in the brain, this could be particularly beneficial. Further exploration is required to figure out exactly which bacterial components generated their protective message. The researchers do know, however, that the bacteria did not interact with the brain chemically, but instead influenced neural survival by changing the behavior of the immune cells. The gut’s immune cells traveled up into the outer coverings of the brain, which are called the meninges. Here they organized and directed a response to the stroke. “One of the most surprising findings was that the immune system made strokes smaller by orchestrating the response from outside the brain, like a conductor who doesn’t play an instrument himself but instructs the others, which ultimately creates music,” said Dr. Costantino Iadecola, director of the Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute and the Anne Parrish Titzell Professor of Neurology at Weill Cornell Medicine. This new gut-brain connection holds promise for preventing stroke in the future, which the researchers say may be achieved by changing at-risk patients’ nutrition.

Article Source: http://www.worldhealth.net/news/gut-bacteria-may-help-decrease-stroke/

 

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Cycling Only 10 Min After Workouts Promotes Recovery as Effectively, Cheaper and More Conveniently Than Ice Baths

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Cold water immersion and active recovery are common post-exercise recovery treatments you’ve read about before at theSuppVersity. With the publication of the latest study from theQueensland University of Technology, this is yet the first article to discuss a comparison of both recovery methods in a nine trained male individuals – a study that shows “that cold water immersion is no more effective than active recovery for minimizing the inflammatory and stress responses in muscle after resistance exercise” (Peake. 2016).

Just like the previously reported anti-adaptive effects of ice-baths (yes, they will impair your gains, the study at hand adds to the accumulating evidence that cold water immersion, one of the most commonly used post-workout recovery strategies, is everything but a gold standard.

But how do Peake et al. know that? Well, the researchers compared the effects of cold water immersion versus active recovery on inflammatory cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, neurotrophins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in skeletal muscle after a standardized intense resistance exercise.

“The resistance training sessions for the two experimental trials were identical and involvedsingle-leg exercises such as 45° leg press (six sets of 8–12 repetitions), single-leg squats (three sets of 12 repetitions), knee extensions (six sets of 8–12 repetitions), and walking lunges (three sets of 12 repetitions). The total duration of the session was ~45 min” (Peake. 2016).

Five minutes after the workout, the subjects either jumped into an inflatable (ice-)bath (iCool iBody, iCool, Miami, Australia) for 10 min (both legs immersed in water up to the waist) or they performed 10 min of active recovery at a self-selected low intensity (on average a meager 36.6 ± 13.8 W) on a stationary cycle ergometer (Wattbike, Nottingham, UK).

Figure 1: Post-exercise changes in CD66b+ neutrophil infiltration, CD68+ macrophage infiltration, and MAC1 and CD163 mRNA expression. Data are presented as the change in the median +/- interquartile range for neutrophils and CD163 mRNA, and the geometric mean +/- 95% confidence interval for macrophages and MAC1 mRNA. ACT, active recovery; CWI, cold water immersion. n = 9. * P < 0.05 versus pre-exercise value (Peake. 2016).

Muscle biopsies were collected from the exercised leg before, 2, 24, and 48 h after
exercise in both trial to access the intramuscular neutrophil and macrophage counts, as well as the inflammatory markers MAC1 and CD163 mRNA, IL1, TNF, IL6, CCL2, CCL4, CXCL2, IL8 and LIF mRNA expression (P<0.05); and the analysis of this data, as well as creatine kinase, subjective feelings of hyperalgesia, the expression of NGF and GDNF mRNA and the levels of B-crystallin and HSP70 showed no difference between the two recovery treatments.

Even simple compression socks will cost you $25+ If you want a complete “compression suit” consisting of shirt, tights, and more, you will probably have to spend roughly $200. Against that background you may be happy to hear that there’s some scientific backup that the money you spend could not be wasted.

Compression garments – do they help? No, they usually don’t look sexy, but they are the latest craze among recovery modalities. The question whether they just sell, or even work, has now been addressed in a systematic review with meta-analysis by Marqués-Jiménez (2016); a paper that found “conclusive evidence increasing power and strength”, “conclusive evidence reducing perceived muscle soreness and swelling” but “no clear evidence of decreased lactate or creatine kinase” and “little evidence of decreased lactate dehydrogenase”. Overall, the existing evidence does therefore suggest that “the application of compression clothing may aid in the recovery of exercise induced muscle damage, although the findings need corroboration” (Marqués-Jiménez. 2016).

I guess, that’s, figuratively speaking, an accolade for the simplest recovery technique there is: low(est) intensity exercise, a recovery modality of which previous studies have shown that it will (a) significantly reduce your blood lactate concentration after various activities (Rontoyannis. 1988) and (b) increase your performance after workouts such as the parallel squat workout in a Y2k study by Corder et al. (2000), the HIIT workout in Connolly, et al. (2003), the supra-maximal exercise tests in Spierer, et al (2004 | see Figure 2), the swimming protocols in Toubekis’ 2008 study, or the 2007 resistance training study by Anna Mika et al. who concluded that “the most appropriate and effective recovery mode after dynamic muscle fatigue involves light, active exercises, such as cycling with minimal resistance” (Mika. 2007).

Figure 2: The 2004 study by Spierer et al. is also interesting, because it shows that the benefits of active recovery on the performance and perceived fatigue after supra-maximal exercise tests may vary according to the training status of the study subjects; with less trained or simply sedentary subjects benefitting more (Spierer. 2004).

Now, Peake et al. are certainly right, when they point out that their “findings indicate that cold water immersion is no more effective than active recovery for reducing inflammation or cellular stress in muscle after a bout of resistance exercise,” there’s one thing that will have to be done in the future: a comparison of active vs. ice-tub recovery on the longitudinal adaptational response (VO2max, power, strength, hypertrophy) to various training modalities. After all, any modulation of the post-exercise inflammatory response, be it via cold water immersion or light exercise, could exert detrimental effects on your “gainz” (in the broadest sense of the word) – the only pertinent study by Yamagashi, however, shows that this is not the case and using an active recovery protocol at 40% of V̇O2peak significantly enhances, not impairs, the endurance adaptations to HIT (Yamagashi. 2016).

SuppVersity Classic: “Cupping for Pain, Health & Performance | Must Be Good, if Phelps Does it, Right? Let’s See What the 100+ Studies Say” – The “cups” come in various forms and sizes… and no, there’s no meta-analysis yet that can tell you what the optimal size and form for the treatment of a given problem would be

Bottom line: If you’ve been thinking about buying an ice tub, forget it. There’s, as Anthony Barnett pointed out in his 2006 review, a profound lack of evidence of positive effects of current recovery modalities such as massage therapy, contrast temperature water immersion, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), stretching and EMS. Eventually, the time and money you spend on any of them between your workouts may thus be wasted – plus: a simple 10-minute ergometer ride at an extremely low exercise intensity can likely do the same as any of the en-vogue but costly recovery techniques, devices and modalities.

With the recently published PhD study by Yamagashi, there’s also initial evidence that active recovery strategies won’t, as it has been shown for ice baths, impair the adaptational VO2max response to high-intensity exercise…

Whether that’s also the case for resistance training and the corresponding training goals hypertrophy and strength, however, will have to be elucidated in future long(er)-term studies in trained and untrained individuals.

References:

  • Barnett, Anthony. “Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes.” Sports medicine 36.9 (2006): 781-796.
  • Connolly, Declan AJ, Kevin M. Brennan, and Christie D. Lauzon. “Effects of active versus passive recovery on power output during repeated bouts of short term, high intensity exercise.” J Sports Sci Med 2.2 (2003): 47-51.
  • Corder, Keith P., et al. “Effects of Active and Passive Recovery Conditions on Blood Lactate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Performance During Resistance Exercise.” The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 14.2 (2000): 151-156.
  • Marqués-Jiménez, Diego, et al. “Are compression garments effective for the recovery of exercise-induced muscle damage? A systematic review with meta-analysis.” Physiology & behavior 153 (2016): 133-148.
  • Mika, Anna, et al. “Comparison of recovery strategies on muscle performance after fatiguing exercise.” American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation 86.6 (2007): 474-481.
  • Peake, Jonathan M., et al. “The effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammation and cell stress responses in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise.” The Journal of Physiology (2016).
  • Rontoyannis, George P. “Lactate elimination from the blood during active recovery.” Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 28.2 (1988): 115-123.
  • Spierer, D. K., et al. “Effects of active vs. passive recovery on work performed during serial supramaximal exercise tests.” International journal of sports medicine 25.02 (2004): 109-114.
  • Toubekis, Argyris G., et al. “Swimming performance after passive and active recovery of various durations.” Int J Sports Physiol Perform 3.3 (2008): 375-386.
  • Yamagishi, Takaki. “Role of active and passive recovery in adaptations to high intensity training.” (2016).

Article Source: http://suppversity.blogspot.ca/2016/10/cycling-only-10-min-after-workouts.html

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