Gut microbiota regulates antioxidant metabolism

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A recently published study shows that gut microbiota regulates the glutathione and amino acid metabolism of the host. Glutathione is a key antioxidant, found in every cell in our body. Deficiency of glutathione contributes to oxidative stress, which plays a major role in several lifestyle diseases.

The functional output and diversity of gut microbiota are important modulators for the development of various human disorders. Obesity, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as well as the opposite end of the spectrum, for example malnutrition, have been associated with imbalance in human gut microbiota. Hence, the interactions between the gut microbiota, host tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and other peripheral tissues as well as diet are known to be highly relevant for the health of the host.

In a recent paper published in Molecular Systems Biology, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, the Royal Institute of Technology and the University of Gothenburg in Sweden revealed that gut microbiota regulates the glutathione and amino acid metabolism of the host. The study, highlighted on the cover of the journal, shows how a novel integrative approach can be used to reveal the metabolic differences between germ-free and conventionally raised mice through a combination of proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics data as well as tissue-specific metabolic modeling.

Glutathione is our body’s most powerful antioxidant and the main detoxifying agent in the body. It plays a vital role in enabling the immune system, nutrient metabolism and regulation of other important cellular events. Glutathione is a very small protein, produced inside the cells from three amino acids ultimately obtained from our food or supplementation. The deficiency of glutathione contributes to oxidative stress, which plays a major role in the mechanisms of above mentioned complex disorders.

In the study, a generic map of mouse metabolism was created, and tissue-specific computer models for major mouse tissues were generated. Through integration of high throughput experimental data, the researchers found that the microbiota in the small intestine consumes glycine, which is one of the three amino acids required for the synthesis of the glutathione.

In order to confirm the results of the computer-based simulations, the level of the amino acids in the portal vein of the mice was measured. Moreover, a lower level of glycine was observed in liver and colon tissues, which indicates that the gut microbiota regulates glutathione metabolism, not only in the small intestine but also in the liver and the colon.

“Some bacteria in our gut consume glycine, which is required for the synthesis of the glutathione, and imbalances in the composition of the bacteria may lead to the progression of the chronic diseases”, says Chalmers researcher Adil Mardinoglu, first author of the paper.

In previous independent studies, imbalances in the plasma level of glycine as well as other amino acids have been shown to exist in obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

“Strikingly, the plasma levels of glycine are decreased in all subjects with the above-mentioned diseases compared to the healthy subjects”, says Professor Jens Nielsen at Chalmers. “In this context, it may be of interest to study the microbial amino acids in the human gut in relation to their potential role in the development of such metabolism-related disorders.

“The discovery that the bacteria in our small intestine consume glycine and regulate glutathione metabolism may led to the development of food products that can deliver beneficial bacteria (probiotics) to the gut. The results of the study can help us understand how bacteria play a role in the metabolic processes involved in the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and malnutrition.”

Article Source: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-11/cuot-gmr110615.php

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8 Common Signs of Liver Damage

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The liver is the largest internal organ, and surprisingly powerful. Not only does it protect all your tissues from damage by filtering out toxins from your bloodstream, but it also can repair its own damaged tissue.

This means that, given the right time and care, liver tissue can be regenerate and your body’s filtration system can continue to function efficiently. However, some liver conditions leave permanent damage, and in these cases, early diagnosis and swift treatment can mean the difference between an uncomfortable (but treatable) illness and a life-threatening emergency.

Like many progressive diseases, you may not notice any signs or symptoms of liver disease in the early stages. As scarring continues and liver function begins to decline, you may begin to notice some physical changes in certain areas of your body, as well as more general discomfort from head to toe.

1. Abdominal Swelling

A swollen abdomen can point to a condition called ascites, where liver malfunction leads to an imbalance of proteins and other compounds, and fluid builds up in the tissues. The main symptom of ascites is a pronounced potbelly, and often signals cirrhosis. Sometimes swelling occurs in the hands, feet, and ankles, as gravity draws the excess fluid down to the extremities.

2. Bruising

A damaged liver produces fewer of the proteins necessary for blood clotting, which means you may bleed and bruise more easily.

3. Fatigue and Weakness

It can be easy to dismiss fatigue and lethargy as a normal side effect of a stressful life, but severe exhaustion could point to low blood oxygen levels and waste accumulation.

4. Loss of Appetite

Nausea, a disinterest in food, and weight loss are some early symptoms of liver problems. In fact, the initial stages of hepatitis often bring flu-like symptoms, including digestive discomfort.

As liver damage progresses, more pronounced symptoms may appear. You may start to feel pain in certain areas, and you might see some startling changes in appearance.

5. Jaundice

As liver function declines and waste can no longer be eliminated from the body efficiently, the bile pigment called bilirubin can build up in the bloodstream. In turn, the skin and eyes can take on a yellowish color, urine will appear darker, and stools will appear lighter.

6. Abdominal Pain

When cirrhosis begins to cause pain, it typically comes in the upper right abdomen, or just under the lower right ribs. The pain can be throbbing or stabbing, and it may come and go. If the pain is so intense that you can’t sit still, you should seek immediate medical attention.

7. Personality Changes

Cognitive issues can develop when toxins accumulate in the blood and move to the brain. Confusion and problems with concentration are often the first signs of toxin overload, but they can lead to forgetfulness, changes in sleeping habits, and unresponsiveness.

8. Persistent Vomiting

While nausea and upset stomach are common early symptoms of liver disease, but as your liver’s ability to eliminate toxins decreases, your digestive distress will likely increase.  Ongoing nausea is a reaction to excess waste products in the body, and unexplained vomiting is often linked to liver problems.

Spotting the symptoms of liver damage is early is vital for effective treatment, so if you suspect a problem with your liver, take your concerns to your doctor right away. There are several tests that can quickly and painlessly reveal the extent of your liver damage, and that will determine the right course of therapy. The sooner you can halt the progression of your liver disease, the more healthy tissue you can save, and the better your liver’s chances of regeneration.

Source: http://healthliving.today/physical-health/8-common-signs-of-liver-damage/

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Placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial of glutathione therapy in male infertility.

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Abstract

Glutathione therapy was used for 2 months in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over trial of 20 infertile patients with dyspermia associated with unilateral varicocele (VAR) or germ-free genital tract inflammation (INF). The patients received either glutathione (group 1) or placebo (group 2) for 2 months, then they crossed over to the alternative treatment for a further 2 months. The patients were randomly and blindly assigned to treatment (one i.m. injection every other day of either 600 mg glutathione or an equal volume of a placebo preparation). The standard semen analysis and the computer-assisted sperm motility analyses were carried out before treatment and during the trial. Statistical cross-over analysis, case-control study and treatment efficacy test were carried out on groups 1 and 2 and differences in the effects of therapy between VAR and INF patients with varicocele or inflammation were tested. Glutathione therapy demonstrated a statistically significant positive effect on sperm motility, in particular on the percentage of forward motility, the kinetic parameters of the computerized analysis and on sperm morphology. The findings of this study indicate that glutathione therapy could represent a possible therapeutical tool for both of the selected andrological pathologies.

PMID:
8300824[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Glutathione Injections at Boston Testosterone Partners

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Interested in Glutathione?  Contact Boston Testosterone Partners to inquire about our outstanding Glutathione Injectable Protocols.

Glutathione is the single best anti-oxidant known.  Nothing else compares.

People with higher Glutathione levels:

  • Have less inflammation.
  • Have reduced joint discomfort.
  • Have strengthened immune systems.
  • Have more energy.
  • Have improved stamina and endurance.
  • Recover faster from exercise and illness.
  • Have greater mental clarity and focus.
  • Sleep better.
  • Live better, longer.

Read the following excerpt from Dr. Herbert Nagasawa, one of the worlds leading research scientists on cellular function.

Categorically and without any equivocation whatsoever, I can tell you that Glutathione is THE most important endogenous antioxidant there is. For one thing it is manufactured by your own body. Secondly… it is the only antioxidant that can recycle itself. No other antioxidant can do that.

One of the major functions of Glutathione is maintain what is known as cellular redox homeostasis. The simplification of this is that Glutathione helps maintain the oxidational level of cells and holds it in check.

A good example of this is the hemoglobin in your red blood cells has to be in a reduced state before it can carry oxygen. In other words, if it is oxidized hemoglobin, like in methemoglobin, oxygen cannot bind to methemoglobin therefore methemoglobin is not any good for carrying oxygen to your cells. It is Glutathione that reduces hemoglobin to the +2 state, which is the reduced state, and then it can carry oxygen on through your blood.

Another function of Glutathione is that it will protect against oxidative stress of the immune system allowing newly formed immune cells to proliferate to attack germs, viruses and the like.

Glutathione is the master of sequestering free radicals. Free radicals are generated normally in your metabolic processes. It not only sequesters those free radicals that are unwanted, it will take the free radicals that are generated as a result of exposure to your environment. You are constantly expose to industrial environments and chemicals and other agents that produce free radicals in your body. Glutathione will sequester this.

Glutathione is also important in protecting the nucleus and DNA of the cell and most importantly the mitochondrial DNA of the cell. Mitochondrial DNA is not very well protected. If you damage the mitochondrial DNA it results in cell death. This is what Glutathione protects against.

Glutathione is also important in the protein biosynthesis process. What happens is Glutathione takes amino acids, which are as you know the building blocks of protein, from the outside of the cell and transports it to the inside of the cell where protein biosynthesis can take place.

One of the most important things in this modern industrial world is that Glutathione is the first line of protection against environmental chemicals and toxins. It not only sequesters free radicals but other things like household chemicals that could be ingested or [absorbed] on the skin.

I can tell you again that Glutathione is the most important endogenous antioxidant there is.

Dr. Nagasawa received his B.S. degree in chemistry from Western Reserve University (now, Case-Western Reserve) in Cleveland, Ohio, and a Ph.D. degree in organic chemistry from the University of Minnesota. Subsequently, he spent two years as a Post-doctoral Fellow in biochemistry at the University of Minnesota before joining the research staff of the V.A. Medical Center in Minneapolis as a Senior Chemist. He was appointed Assistant Professor of Medicinal Chemistry at the University of Minnesota in 1959. He was named Principal Scientist of the VAMC in 1961 and was promoted in 1976 to Senior Research Career Scientist, a nationwide VA title reserved for the VA’s top scientists. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1963 and to Professor of Medicinal Chemistry in 1973.

Dr. Nagasawa has held joint professorships in the Department of Pharmacology and the university-wide Division of Toxicology, and served as Visiting Professor at Washington State University in 1990. He also served for 32 years as a Senior Editor for the prestigious international Journal of Medicinal Chemistry from 1972 to 2004, and one year as Acting Editor-in-Chief. In addition, he served on the Editorial Board of the journal, Bioconjugate Chemistry for eight years, and as an ad hoc grant reviewer for the NCI and NIAAA, National Institutes of Health.

Dr. Nagasawa has published over 165 papers in peer-reviewed journals. In June of 2010, Dr. Nagasawa and his team attended the National Institutes of Health-Homeland Security 4th Annual Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats Network Symposium to present their work on the cyanide antidote.

Dr. Nagasawa ha long been regarded as one of the worlds leading research scientists on cellular function, Glutathione and the chemistry and delivery of Glutathione. He and his laboratory have be awarded an extraordinary 9 patents.

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Our protocols include Sermorelin-GHRP2 Therapy, Glutathione Therapy, numerous Amino Acid Injectable combinations, personally tailored Weight Loss injectables, Cialis or Viagra sublinguals, Oxytocin sprays, and more..

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Injectable Glutathione Therapy at Boston Testosterone Partners

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Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Boston

Boston Testosterone Partners

Boston Testosterone Partners provides Testosterone Replacement Therapy to men over 30 who suffer from low testosterone or andropause.  Our patients also have access to cutting edge neutraceutical injectables.
Glutathione is perhaps the most exciting one of them all.
If you have not heard of glutathione yet, get ready, you will be.
Glutathione is referred to as the the mother of all antioxidants, the master detoxifier and maestro of the immune system.  It’s the most important molecule you need to stay healthy and prevent disease yet you’ve probably never heard of it.
It’s the secret to prevent aging, cancer, heart disease, dementia and more, and necessary to treat everything from autism to Alzheimer’s disease.  The good news is that your body produces its own glutathione.  The bad news is that poor diet, pollution, toxins, medications, stress, trauma, aging, infections and radiation all deplete your glutathione.   This leaves you susceptible to unrestrained cell disintegration from oxidative stress, free radicals, infections and cancer. And your liver gets overloaded and damaged, making it unable to do its job of detoxification.

What is Glutathione?

Glutathione is a very simple molecule that is produced naturally all the time in your body.  It is a combination of three simple building blocks of protein or amino acids — cysteine, glycine and glutamine.  The secret of its power is the sulfur (SH) chemical groups it contains. Sulfur is a sticky, smelly molecule.  It acts like fly paper and all the bad things in the body stick onto it, including free radicals and toxins like mercury and other heavy metals.
Normally glutathione is recycled in the body — except when the toxic load becomes too great. And that explains why we are in such trouble … The Importance of Glutathione in Protecting Against Chronic Illness.
Glutathione is critical for one simple reason:  It recycles antioxidants.  You see, dealing with free radicals is like handing off a hot potato.  They get passed around from vitamin C to vitamin E to lipoic acid and then finally to glutathione which cools off the free radicals and recycles other antioxidants.   After this happens, the body can “reduce” or regenerate another protective glutathione molecule and we are back in business.
However, problems occur when we are overwhelmed with too much oxidative stress or too many toxins.  Then the glutathione becomes depleted and we can no longer protect ourselves against free radicals, infections, or cancer and we can’t get rid of toxins.  This leads to further sickness and soon we are in the downward spiral of chronic illness.
But that’s not all.  Glutathione is also critical in helping your immune system do its job of fighting infections and preventing cancer.  That’s why studies show that it can help in the treatment of AIDS.
Glutathione is also the most critical and integral part of your detoxification system.  All the toxins stick onto glutathione, which then carries them into the bile and the stool — and out of your body.
And lastly, it also helps us reach peak mental and physical function.  Research has shown that raised glutathione levels decrease muscle damage, reduce recovery time, increase strength and endurance and shift metabolism from fat production to muscle development.  If you are sick or old or are just not in peak shape, you likely have glutathione deficiency.  Keeping yourself healthy, boosting your performance, preventing disease and aging well depends on keeping your glutathione levels high.  It is critical for immune function and controlling inflammation. It is the master detoxifier and the body’s main antioxidant, protecting our cells and making our energy metabolism run well.
Contact Boston Testosterone today to find out how you can get started with Glutathione therapy today.
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