Artificial Sweeteners Linked To Obesity And Diabetes

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People are becoming more health conscious and are bending towards use of artificial sweeteners, especially zero calorie ones. These replacements sugars have been demonstrated to be likely to cause health changes which are associated with obesity and diabetes.

 Worldwide these artificial sweeteners have become one of the most common food additives which are used. They can be found in a wide variety of beverages and food items including diet soda. One of the largest populations was looked at to investigate the effects of these artificial sweeteners and what they are capable of doing within the body, and metabolism of sweeteners and sugar after consumption; and the effects on blood vessel health. Results of this study were presented at the 2018 Experimental Biology Meeting.

 Model rats were fed diets which were high in fructose or glucose or acesulfame potassium, or aspartame; which are natural and zero calorie artificial sweeteners. Differences in concentrations of amino acids, fats, and other blood parameters observed within the animals after 3 weeks of being on the diets, specifically acesulfame potassium was found to be accumulating with in the blood and in higher concentrations damaging the blood vessel wall linings.

There has been a significant rise in diabetes and obesity despite the use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners. Researchers explain that this study shows that both artificial sweeteners and sugar have negative effects on the body which leads to diabetes and obesity, with the mechanisms for the cause of obesity differing for both.

When there was an overload of sugar machinery which handles them breaks down. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners lead to negative changes in metabolism, energy, and fat. More research is required on the subject, but results are enough to show high dietary sugars and artificial sweeteners do have negative health outcomes.

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https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-04/eb2-wzs041218.php

 

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Low sperm count not just a problem for fertility

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A man’s semen count is a marker of his general health, according to the largest study to date evaluating semen quality, reproductive function and metabolic risk in men referred for fertility evaluation. The study results, in 5,177 male partners of infertile couples from Italy, will be presented Sunday at ENDO 2018, the Endocrine Society’s 100th annual meeting in Chicago, Ill.

“Our study clearly shows that low sperm count by itself is associated with metabolic alterations, cardiovascular risk and low bone mass,” said the study’s lead investigator, Alberto Ferlin, M.D., Ph.D. He recently moved as associate professor of endocrinology to Italy’s University of Brescia from the University of Padova, where the study took place in collaboration with professor Carlo Foresta, M.D.

“Infertile men are likely to have important co-existing health problems or risk factors that can impair quality of life and shorten their lives,” said Ferlin, who is also president of the Italian Society of Andrology and Sexual Medicine. “Fertility evaluation gives men the unique opportunity for health assessment and disease prevention.”

Specifically, Ferlin and his colleagues found that about half the men had low sperm counts and were 1.2 times more likely than those with normal sperm counts to have greater body fat (bigger waistline and higher body mass index, or BMI); higher blood pressure (systolic, or top reading), “bad” (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides; and lower “good” (HDL) cholesterol. They also had a higher frequency of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of these and other metabolic risk factors that increase the chance of developing diabetes, heart disease and stroke, the investigators reported. A measure of insulin resistance, another problem that can lead to diabetes, also was higher in men with low sperm counts.

Low sperm count was defined as less than 39 million per ejaculate, a value also used in the U.S. All the men in the study had a sperm analysis as part of a comprehensive health evaluation in the university’s fertility clinic, which included measurement of their reproductive hormones and metabolic parameters.

The researchers found a 12-fold increased risk of hypogonadism, or low testosterone levels, in men with low sperm counts. Half the men with low testosterone had osteoporosis or low bone mass, a possible precursor to osteoporosis, as found on a bone density scan.

These study findings, according to Ferlin, suggest that low sperm count of itself is associated with poorer measures of cardiometabolic health but that hypogonadism is mainly involved in this association. He cautioned that their study does not prove that low sperm counts cause metabolic derangements, but rather that sperm quality is a mirror of the general male health.

The bottom line, Ferlin stressed, is that treatment of male infertility should not focus only on having a child when diagnostic testing finds other health risks, such as overweight, high cholesterol or high blood pressure.

“Men of couples having difficulties achieving pregnancy should be correctly diagnosed and followed up by their fertility specialists and primary care doctor because they could have an increased chance of morbidity and mortality,” he said.

Article Source: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-03/tes-lsc031418.php

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Symptomatic response to testosterone treatment in dieting obese men with low testosterone levels in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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Background:

Obese men commonly have reductions in circulating testosterone and report symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency. We hypothesized that testosterone treatment improves constitutional and sexual symptoms over and above the effects of weight loss alone.

Methods:

We conducted a pre-specified analysis of a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a tertiary referral center. About 100 obese men (body mass index (BMI)greater than or equal to30kgm2) with a repeated total testosterone level less than or equal to12nmoll−1 and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47–60) receiving 10 weeks of a very-low-energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n=49, cases) or matching placebo (n=51, controls). Pre-specified outcomes were the between-group differences in Aging Male Symptoms scale (AMS) and international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) questionnaires.

Results:

Eighty-two men completed the study. At study end, cases showed significant symptomatic improvement in AMS score, compared with controls, and improvement was more marked in men with more severe baseline symptoms (mean adjusted difference (MAD) per unit of change in AMS score −0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.65, −0.02), P=0.04). This corresponds to improvements of 11%and 20% from baseline scores of 40 and 60, respectively, with higher scores denoting more severe symptoms. Men with erectile dysfunction (IIEF-5less than or equal to20) had improved erectile function with testosterone treatment. Cases and controls lost the same weight after VLED (testosterone −12.0kg; placebo −13.5kg, P=0.40) and maintained this at study end (testosterone −11.4kg; placebo −10.9kg, P=0.80). The improvement in AMS following VLED was not different between the groups (−0.05 (95% CI −0.28, 0.17), P=0.65).

Conclusions:

In otherwise healthy obese men with mild to moderate symptoms and modest reductions in testosterone levels, testosterone treatment improved androgen deficiency symptoms over and above the improvement associated with weight loss alone, and more severely symptomatic men achieved a greater benefit.

 Article Source: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v41/n3/full/ijo2016242a.html?WT.ec_id=IJO-201703

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Heavy hitters: Obesity rate soars among professional baseball players

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Major League Baseball players have become overwhelmingly overweight and obese during the last quarter century, say health researchers.

David E. Conroy, Penn State professor of kinesiology, and colleagues looked at 145 years of data on professional baseball players’ body mass. The researchers found that the athletes’ weight held steady for over 100 years, with the majority of them weighing in at what is considered “normal,” — i.e., with a body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 24.9.

However, around 1991 the average player’s BMI began to rise, and over the last 25 years nearly 80 percent of players fall into the overweight or obese category with a BMI above 25. Obesity in the general U.S. population began to rise in the mid-1970s, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

“Research exists that shows how having extra weight can help with certain aspects of baseball,” said Conroy, also professor of human development and family studies. “The more force a batter can put into the ball, the further it will travel.”

The researchers used the publicly available Lahman Baseball Database, where players’ height, weight and age are recorded for their debut year in Major League Baseball. The data were self-reported, however Conroy points to the trend of players’ increasing weight as informative — and cause for some concern.

Conroy and colleagues report their findings today (Sept. 28) in Obesity Research and Clinical Practice.

“The data are observational, and raise more questions than they answer,” cautioned Conroy. “BMI can be misleading, because it doesn’t take body composition into account. What kind of pounds are the players adding? Are they mostly muscle or fat?”

The rise coincides with baseball’s steroid era, and steroids are known to cause weight gain in some. But the rise also lines up with advances in sports science and nutrition, which have enabled athletes to better train and fuel, helping them build muscle and endurance — which could lead to weight gain as well.

“These trends warrant further attention because of the potential for adverse long-term health consequences in this population and those who perceive them as role models for health and human performance,” the researchers wrote.

Kathleen Y. Wolin, co-founder of Coeus Health, LLC, and Mercedes R. Carnethon, associate professor of preventive medicine, Northwestern University, also worked on this research.

Article Source: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-10/ps-hho100516.php

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